The Amendment to the Convention was adopted in Vienna on 8 July 2005. The Convention itself, adopted on 26 October 1979, is among the main instruments for fighting international terrorism.
This Amendment provides for a significant strengthening of the nuclear safety regime and for countering the threat of nuclear terrorism. It expands the scope of the Convention, enhances the role of the IAEA [International Atomic Energy Agency] and increases the list of violations to be considered unconscionable. In particular, the list includes the smuggling of nuclear material and sabotage of a nuclear facility.
The Amendment prohibits attempts to justify violations of nuclear safety on political grounds, as well as invoking the Convention to justify the use of force or threat of use of force against nuclear material or nuclear facilities used for peaceful purposes.