was founded in 1656 by Patriarch Nikon who saw it as the centre of the Orthodox world. Some buildings of the monastery resemble buildings in the Holy Land, and the main cathedral is analogous to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem.
In 1919, the monastery was closed and transformed into the New Jerusalem museum.
During the three-week Nazi occupation in 1941, the museum was ransacked, the monastery buildings blown up, the tower and belfry destroyed, and the cathedral seriously damaged.
Restoration of the monastery began after the Great Patriotic War, with particularly intensive work taking place in the 1960s through the 1980s.
In 1994, the transfer of the monastery facilities to the Russian Orthodox Church was initiated. In 2008, the Charity Fund for Reconstruction of the Voskresensky New Jerusalem Stauropegial Friary Monastery of the Russian Orthodox Church was established.