Presidential Adviser, Special Presidential Envoy On Climate Change Alexander Bedritsky: Distinguished Co-Chairs, Excellencies, Ladies and Gentlemen,
In the recent years the Russian Federation has been actively participating in the international cooperation on climate issues and is the world leader in terms of emission cuts. The cumulative reduction in emissions in the energy sector in Russia for the last 20 years equals the total emission volume for 5 years in the EU or 3 years in the US. Thanks to structural optimization and energy efficiency policies, the carbon intensity of the Russian GDP has fallen three-fold in 1990–2011.
The current Russian state policies pursue low-carbon development. Following the Copenhagen Accord, our target is to decrease the energy intensity of the GDP by 13,5% by 2020. In 2013, a Presidential executive order set forth the national goal of cutting anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions by 2020 25% below 1990 level. As per the Plan adopted in order to achieve this goal, an inventory of GHG emissions is being created, a system of state support for projects aimed at emission reduction is being put in place, pilot projects are getting ready for implementation, and emissions regulation system is being prepared for approval.
The increase in energy efficiency and the share of non-hydrocarbon fuels in energy generation is ensured through a number of new development strategies for various sectors of the economy and regions for the periods ending in 2020 and 2030.
For instance, the share of biofuels in overall fuel consumption will grow by 8% by 2018. In cumulative agricultural and timber waste, the share of energy recovery from waste related to agriculture, timber processing as well as food industry will increase from 3% in 2012 to 80% in 2018.
A new benchmark event is approaching, i.e. the adoption of “a protocol, another legal instrument or an agreed outcome with legal force applicable to all Parties” in 2015.
Its basic elements have already been agreed — mitigation and adaptation strategies. In the new architecture of multilateral climate cooperation, finance and technologies are key means for achieving mitigation and adaptation targets in all countries. A major role is to be played by the MRV system and its transparency. Adaptation should be regarded as shared responsibility since the impact of climate disasters, especially in developing countries, makes emission reduction measures dependent on successful adaptation.
In our view, the new climate agreement should be based on the principles established by the UNFCCC, including the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities. Commitments of developed and developing countries may be different but at the same time they should have equal status and be subject to accountability.
Regarding possible commitments for the post-2020 period, we favour the “bottom-up” approach, which means that countries should determine their commitments themselves. This requires defining a period covered by the new agreement. We hope this could be solved during the COP in Lima. Taking into account the economic and social development programmes as well as the emission control measures, Russia is expected to stabilize its energy consumption and even lower it after 2030. A long-term target for Russia could be limiting anthropogenic GHG emissions by 2030 down to the level of 70–75% of 1990 level.
19% of the world’s boreal forests are in Russia. Boreal forests store twice as much carbon as any other terrestrial ecosystem. This fact has key importance for reducing anthropogenic impact on climate and should be given appropriate consideration in the new agreement.
We expect that the negotiations on a new global agreement will be constructive and based on respect of international law, and we are determined to contribute to their successful conclusion by the COP in Paris.
According to WMO, the atmospheric concentration of GHG has hit record high. The time factor and scale of the problem dictate urgent and joint action. Conclusion of the new climate agreement in 2015 must demonstrate the results of joint efforts aimed at overcoming global environmental challenges.