The 2013 Russian Federation National Award in Science and Technology has been awarded to Anatoly Grigoryev for the theoretical work, development and practical implementation of a medical system for space crews on long space flights
Anatoly Grigoryev was born on March 23, 1943, in the village of Medelevka in Ukraine’s Zhitomyr Region. He is Vice President of the Russian Academy of Sciences, an academician in the Russian Academy of Sciences and Academy of Medical Sciences, doctor of medical science, research director at the Russian Academy of Sciences Institute of Biomedical Problems (IMBP), and a winner of Soviet and Russian national awards.
Mr Grigoryev is an influential scientist who has made an outstanding contribution to resolving fundamental and applied tasks in space physiology, biology, biophysics and medicine. His fundamental research in these areas (through experiments on Earth, on biological satellites and during spaceflights, starting in 1970 and continuing today) have made it possible to identify the ways that space flight affects the body’s different functional structures, study adaptation patterns, and work out approaches for developing a system for maintaining cosmonauts’ health during long flights, as well as post-flight rehabilitation systems.
Mr Grigoryev opened up a whole new field in science, that of gravitational physiology, which studies the regulation patterns of the body’s functions in conditions of gravity change.
Mr Grigoryev’s works have created a theoretical and development basis making it possible to implement in practice during space flights medical supervision, prognosis and management methods and have served as the base for developing a comprehensive system of preventive medical techniques to counteract the negative effects of weightlessness. The fundamental data obtained has made it possible to carry out long flights on orbital stations.
Successful extra-long flights, including on board the International Space Station, have confirmed the effectiveness of the medical system for maintaining cosmonauts’ health, performance and safety. The system provides the base for developing methods to ensure medical and biological support for future interplanetary expeditions. The international 520-day experiment (Mars-500) to simulate a manned space flight to Mars, carried out at IMBP under Mr Grigoryev’s supervision and assessed highly around the world, has made an important contribution to this work.
Mr Grigoryev’s research and its results have made Russia a leader in medical and biological support for space expeditions, and his achievements in space medicine also have broad applications in practical healthcare.
The 2013 Russian Federation National Award in Science and Technology is conferred to Viktor Maslov for an outstanding contribution to mathematics and establishing the mathematical foundations of modern thermodynamics.
Viktor Maslov was born on July 15, 1930 in Moscow. He is a member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, a D.Sc. degree holder and a professor at the Moscow State Institute of Electronics and Mathematics, now part of the National Research University Higher School of Economics. Mr Maslov is a winner of the Lenin Prize, the National Awards of the USSR and Russia, and the Demidov Prize.
Mr Maslov is one of the world's most prominent researchers in mechanics and mathematics, both applied and fundamental. To a great extent, his research consists of mathematical assimilation of engineering and physics problems. Mr Maslov’s work on practical problems led to his creation of new fields of mathematics, such as geometric quantisation theory, Lagrangian geometry, tropical mathematics and others. His groundbreaking achievements include the introduction of key objects of the modern symplectic geometry: Lagrangian manifolds, the Maslov index, and the Maslov class, the introduction of Maslov’s canonical operator over Lagrangian manifolds, which constitutes the basic construction of the quasi-classical approximation and the WKB-Maslov method of asymptotic solution of wave and quantum equations, and the discovery of an algebraic method to reduce nonlinear equations to linear ones (Maslov’s idempotent analysis).
Mr Maslov transformed the theory of asymptotic methods into a powerful tool for analysing physical and mathematical objects. Methods developed by Mr Maslov became classics of the modern mathematical science.
Mr Maslov developed completely new conceptual approaches to mathematical foundations of thermodynamics as well as to probability and statistics. His publications are among the most cited in mathematical science.
The 2013 Russian Federation National Award for Science and Technology has been conferred to Alexander Chubaryan for fundamental results in researching the history of Russian-European relations in the 19th and 20th centuries and for his major contribution to developing new conceptual approaches to teaching history at school and university level in Russia.
Alexander Chubaryan was born on October 14, 1931, in Moscow. He is a member of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Director of the Russian Academy of Sciences’ Institute of General History.
Mr Chubaryan is one of Russia’s foremost experts in the history of Russian-European relations in the 19th and 20th centuries. His works present and explain the essence of what he terms ‘Russian Europeanism’, which blends the basic foundations of European civilisation and culture with Russia’s specific features that have their roots in in the country’s geographical location, multi-ethnic and multi-faith makeup, specific historic traditions and spiritual legacy. The concept he has developed has gained wide recognition in Russia and abroad, and his monographs have been published in France, Britain, Germany and the United States.
Another area of Mr Chubaryan’s interest and research is the history of international relations in the 20th century. His research examines the evolution of international political systems, the links between domestic and foreign policy, and ideology’s influence on international relations.
Over recent years, Mr Chubaryan has developed and put forward a series of conceptual proposals for raising the role of humanities in Russia as part of the country’s overall modernisation.
Mr Chubaryan is actively involved in writing textbooks and teaching aids for schools and universities. He is overseeing work on a major project – the 18-volume Russian Historical Encyclopaedia.
As long-time head of one of Russia’s biggest research institutes, Mr Chubaryan helps to systematise the study and teaching of general history and organises annual conferences for heads of history departments at Russia’s leading universities.
Mr Chubaryan has achieved recognition at the international level, as is reflected in his participation in running the International Committee of Historical Sciences and the International Association of Modern European History. He is the recipient of a number of foreign state awards.