The 2014 Russian Federation National Award in Science and Technology was conferred to Academician Yevgeny Kablov for developing a new generation of high-temperature construction and functional materials and the development for the purposes of import replacement of high technology low-tonnage production of materials and technology for aviation, aerospace and special equipment.
Yevgeny Kablov was born on February 14, 1952, in the village of Spirtzavod in Tengushevsky Region of the Mordovian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. He is member of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the General Director of the National Research Institute of Aviation Materials (VIAM).
Mr Kablov is an outstanding scientist, a leading world expert in modern material studies and research of reliability of materials on real structures.
His work made it possible to create unique aerospace technology that would be competitive on the global market.
The results of Mr Kablov’s fundamental and applied research laid the foundation for modern high technology for the creation of various classes of prospective materials, while his activity as the head of VIAM has made the institute a leader among national research organisations engaged in the materials studies.
A computer method for structuring the chemical composition of an alloy with specific properties was developed under the supervision of Academician Kablov. The alloys obtained were used to create new gas turbine and helicopter engines.
A band new high-gradient crystallisation process control technology created by Mr Kablov based on fundamental research is about 30 times more effective compared to its foreign analogues.
Since 2005, Mr Kablov was elected President of the Russian Federation Association of State Research Centres. He created a continuous system of training and retraining for VIAM staff to maintain continuity, developer research schools, and maintain the creative environment for knowledge generation and innovative activity. The application of this system made it possible to reduce the average age of researchers from 61.5 in 1997 to 43 in 2014. To ensure proper training of highly skilled material engineers, Mr Kablov has been successfully combining his research and administrative functions with educational work: he heads chairs at the Moscow Bauman State Technological University and the Tsiolkovsky Moscow State Technological University.
The 2014 Russian Federation National Award in Science and Technology was conferred to Academician Gennady Krasnikov for developing semiconductor structures with controlled and stable electrophysical parameters for modern microelectronic production.
Gennady Krasnikov was born on April 30, 1958,in Tambov. He is a member of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the General Director of Mikron Plant and Research Institute for Molecular Electronics (MERI).
Academician Krasnikov is a well-known expert in semiconductor, dielectrics and heterostructure physics, semiconductor equipment physics and micro- and nano-electronics production technology. The use of principles for obtaining semiconductor structures with controlled and stable electrophysical parameters for modern microelectronic production and further research ensured the development of new types of microchips and laid the foundation of modern domestic commercial microelectronics production.
The Mikron Plant and Research Institute for Molecular Electronics (MERI) Mr Krasnikov has been heading since 1991 used a modern technological base to launch the design and production of their own microchips. Mr Krasnikov’s research brought the Institute to a leading position in the country in the development and mass production of integral microchips for civilian and special use.
A consistent policy to support and maintain demand for locally produced electronics has led to a reduction in the import of foreign-made analogues.
To implement the state target to reduce dependence on imported components, MERI organised the production of locally designed microchips with a programmable energy-independent memory that are now used in Russian electronic documents, transport and bank cards. Research teams led by Mr Krasnikov were the only ones in the country who managed to ensure the production of not only the microchips, but also of corresponding software. Mr Krasnikov pays special attention to training young researchers and specialists. He heads microelectronics chairs at the Moscow National Research University of Electronic Technology and the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology. More than 500 employees of the Mikron Group are engaged in research and development and undergo regular training sessions at leading foreign facilities specialising in submicron- and nanotechnologies.
The 2014 Russian Federation National Award in Science and Technology was conferred to Academician Valery Tishkov for his achievements in ethnology and social and cultural anthropology, the development of the ethnic monitoring method and ethno-political conflict prevention and resolution method.
Valery Tishkov was born on November 6, 1941, in the town of Nizhniye Sergi in Sverdlovsk Region. He is a member of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Director of the Miklukho-Maklai Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
Mr Tishkov is an acclaimed leader of Russian ethnological science who made a significant contribution to the research of history and ethnocultural variety of the world, the historical process theory and the development of the basics of the Russian Federation ethnic policy. He is also the author of a number of works about the peoples of Russia and the world.
Academician Tishkov has the highest international and Russian citation ratings among Russia’s humanities scholars (47 on the Hirsch index). Of his 400 works and 20 monographs, three books were translated and published in China, two books – in the USA and Great Britain, while students in many countries of the world study his works.
A significant stage in Mr Tishkov’s research was his study of the history of North America, including the history and culture of the American Indians, the history of Russian colonisation, problems of American historiography, including the place and role of history as a science and a study subject in American society. He developed the area of ethnological indianistics through organising symposia and publishing works.
Mr Tishkov’s study of the social and cultural nature of separatism and violence and the social transformations in society during armed conflicts are world-class achievements.
Academician Tishkov’s works have had a significant impact on the development of humanities in Russia and abroad. His theoretical and expert insights are extensively used in Russian politics, in drafting legal acts and conceptual documents, including the current Russian Federation national ethnic policy.
The ethnological conflict monitoring and prevention system, or the Tishkov model, that has been tested for 20 years, is one of the best in the world and forms the basis of the federal interethnic relations and conflict monitoring system that is being set up in Russia.