The 2016 Russian Federation National Award in science and technology has been awarded to Yury BATURIN, Vladimir BOGDANOV and Anatoly NURYAYEV for the creation of rational systems for the development of oil, oil-and-gas and gas-and-oil fields in Western Siberia.
Yury Baturin, born March 3, 1936 in Alexandrovka, Blagoveshchensk District, Bashkir ASSR, is Doctor of Technology and adviser to the chief geologist of Surgutneftegas.
Vladimir Bogdanov, born May 28, 1951 in Suyerka, Uporovsky District, Tyumen Region, is Doctor of Economics and Director General of Surgutneftegaz, Hero of Labour of the Russian Federation.
Anatoly Nuryayev, born January 8, 1949 in Baku, Azerbaijan SSR, is First Deputy Director General of Surgutneftegaz.
The three National Award winners proposed the rational principles of development of oil and gas fields in Western and Eastern Siberia, later substantiated the approach by theoretical and laboratory studies, and confirmed it through industrial practice on a regional scale. Their achievement allows for extracting hydrocarbon resources with high technical and economic efficiency while meeting the latest technosphere safety standards.
The team discovered new patterns linking the structures of complex types of deposits with the debit of hydrocarbon production facilities, and used them as a basis for new methods of calculation and planning of the producing and injecting well locations. Their project has made it possible to put into operation strategically important oil and gas fields faster. They also developed a number of automated systems that helped design systems for the development of all operational deposits in Western Siberia, which saved Surgutneftegaz multimillion dollar costs of purchasing similar foreign software.
Their joint work has made a significant contribution to resource-saving technology and oil and gas production technology, and to the development of strategic raw material potential of the Russian Federation. The level of scientific and technological achievements is comparable with, or even exceeds, the world industry level.
The 2016 Russian Federation National Award in science and technology has been awarded to Amiran REVISHVILI, Alexander KARASKOV and Yevgeny POKUSHALOV for scientific substantiation and introduction into clinical practice of a new concept for reducing morbidity and mortality among patients with heart rhythm abnormalities.
Amiran Revishvili, born February 11, 1956, in Moscow, is Full Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Doctor of Medicine, Director of the Vishnevsky Institute of Surgery under the Healthcare Ministry.
Alexander Karaskov, born February 2, 1958, at the Krasny Oktyabr State Farm, Cherlaksky District, Omsk Region, is Full Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Doctor of Medicine, Director of the Meshalkin Siberian Federal Biomedical Research Centre under the Healthcare Ministry.
Yevgeny Pokushalov, born November 7, 1974, in Tomsk, is a Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Doctor of Medicine, Deputy Director for Research and Experimental Work of the Meshalkin Siberian Federal Biomedical Research Centre under the Healthcare Ministry.
The study conducted by the three cardiologists has shaped an entire new research area into the influence of the autonomous nervous system on the development of irregular heartbeat and heart failure. The treatment methods of cardiac arrhythmias developed on the basis of this study have been included in the Recommendations of the Russian Society of Arrhythmologists for the diagnosis and treatment of irregular heartbeat, in the International Guidelines on the Management of Patients with Atrial Fibrillation. Amiran Revishvili, Alexander Karaskov and Yevgeny Pokushalov researched and developed the innovative treatment methods in close cooperation with the world's leading institutions. The result of their work was the scientific substantiation and introduction into clinical practice of a new concept of reducing morbidity and mortality in patients with heart rhythm disorders.
As many as 95,000 operations have been performed at the Meshalkin Siberian Federal Biomedical Research Centre alone under their guidance. The novel technology for the modification of the autonomic nervous system in atrial fibrillation is recognised worldwide and recommended for practical use by all international scientific communities in cardiology and arrhythmology.
The three laureates are holders of 111 patents. A new class of pharmaceuticals for the treatment of atrial fibrillation has been developed under their guidance; its high efficiency has been proven. The new drug is now in the official preclinical testing phase.
The 2016 Russian Federation National Award in science and technology has been awarded to Nikolai SHAKURA and Rashid SUNYAEV for developing a black hole accretion disk theory.
Nikolai Shakura, born October 7, 1945 in Danilovka, Svetlogorsk District, Gomel Region (Belarus), is Doctor of Science in Physics and Mathematics and Head of the Relativistic Astrophysics Department at the Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Moscow State University.
Rashid Sunyaev, born March 1, 1943 in Tashkent, Uzbek SSR, is a full member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Doctor of Science in Physics and Mathematics, head of the High Energy Astrophysics Laboratory, director of the project to support the Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma (Spektr-RG/SRG) astrophysical laboratory at the Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
Nikolai Shakura and Rashid Sunyaev are outstanding Russian scientists in the field of high energy astrophysics and cosmology.
Their work, primarily the paper titled Black Holes in Binary Systems. Observational Appearance, has established the basis for the theory of disk accretion of black holes and neutron stars.
In addition to an explanation for the accretion of matter in an accretion disk, which Shakura and Sunyaev have provided, the international astrophysical community also expressed appreciation for the other parts of their project, which describe an agglomeration of various other mechanisms that have since been known as the standard accretion disk model of Shakura and Sunyaev. Super-powerful ground based telescopes and space based X-ray laboratories are being used to study the Shakura-Sunyaev model. The majority of black holes have been found thanks to the bright radiation of the accretion disks around them. Moreover, this theory can be applied not only to the disks of black holes, neutron stars and white dwarfs, but also to protoplanetary disks surrounding young newly formed stars.
Nikolai Shakura, Rashid Sunyaev and their research teams have published over 200 studies developing this fundamental theory.
The current disk accretion theory continues to develop, while the breakthrough theory formulated by Nikolai Shakura and Rashid Sunyaev in theoretical astrophysics has outlined the development path for high energy physics for decades ahead.