The 2020 Russian Federation National Award for outstanding achievements in science and technology has been awarded to Yevgeny ALEKSANDROV and Valery ZAPASSKY for the creation and development of a new sphere of research, spin noise spectroscopy.
Yevgeny Aleksandrov was born on April 13, 1936, in Leningrad (now St Petersburg). He has a DSc in Physics and Mathematics and is a professor, full member of the Russian Academy of Sciences and laboratory head at the RAS Ioffe Institute.
Valery Zapassky was born on August 25, 1942, in Omsk. He has a DSc in Physics and Mathematics and is a leading research fellow at the Uraltsev Spin Optics Laboratory of St Petersburg State University.
The research team have offered a fundamentally new concept of studying the magnetic energy structure of a great variety of physical objects. Unlike the traditional spectroscopy methods, which include the mandatory disturbance of the investigated medium, the new approach is based on the use of high-sensitivity optical methods for studying the self-induced oscillations of the object’s magnetic characteristics (spontaneous spin noise). This approach can greatly simplify the procedure and, being non-invasive, can maintain measurement sensitivity closer to the fundamental line.
Yevgeny Aleksandrov and Valery Zapassky have created a new field of research, spin noise spectroscopy, which is being widely applied in fundamental physical research, in the technologies of semiconductor nanostructures and in 3D visualisation of the structure of various materials. It is also important for creating new technologies for construction, mechanical engineering, medicine and quantum computer engineering.
Yevgeny Aleksandrov proposed complementing the traditional optical spectroscopy methods with fluctuation intensity spectroscopy.
Valery Zapassky suggested studying fluctuations of the Faraday rotation spectrum of the light polarisation plane as an additional source of information about spin dynamics. He co-authored a unique device based on the ultimate sensitivity of the investigated objects in magnetic fields, with its characteristics meeting the best international standards in this branch of physics.
The 2020 National Award in Science and Technology has been conferred upon Alexander GINTSBURG, Denis LOGUNOV and Sergei BORISEVICH for developing effective recombinant vaccines against Ebola and the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) and introducing them into the Russian healthcare practice, as well as for developing a technology for constructing viral vector delivery systems with the insertion of the Ebola virus glycoprotein gene and the SARS-CoV-2 virus S-protein gene
Alexander Gintsburg was born on November 10, 1951, in Moscow. He has a PhD in Biology and is a professor and member of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS). He is the Director of the Gamaleya National Centre of Epidemiology and Microbiology of the Russian Health Ministry.
Denis Logunov was born on October 13, 1978, in Moscow, has a PhD in Biology and is a RAS corresponding member. He is the Deputy Director of the Gamaleya National Centre of Epidemiology and Microbiology of the Russian Health Ministry.
Sergei Borisevich was born on March 9, 1967, in Berdichev, Zhitomir Region of the USSR, holds a PhD in Biology and is a professor and a RAS corresponding member. He is the head of the 48th Central Research and Development Institute of the Russian Defence Ministry.
The scientists have made a breakthrough in the development of new viral vector platforms to create recombinant virus vaccines and specimens for gene therapy as well as to study features of the expression of target genes in various types of cells. Panels of original targeting vectors have been created based on recombinant human and animal adenoviruses, vesicular stomatitis virus, and lentiviral vectors. The most effective use of the platform has been seen in the GamEvac and GamEvac-Combi vaccines against Ebola as well as Sputnik V against SARS-COVID 19. The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the developed medicines have been studied, including preclinical studies on primates and clinical trials. The development and improvement of vector platforms, as well as the introduction of these innovations into industrial practice resulted in the creation of fundamentally new medicines. These medicines have been officially registered for application in practical healthcare.
The use of Sputnik V has proven to be highly effective and can be regarded as part of the pandemic protection strategy. Articles in the Lancet magazine and the broad international discussion that followed, as well as the successful use of Sputnik V made it possible to demonstrate a critical breakthrough in fundamental medicine to a broad Russian and international scientific audience, as a result of the scientists’ work. The scientists’ technology for constructing recombinant vector vaccines is potentially promising for the creation of similar medicines to combat other dangerous and exotic viral infections.
Alexander Gintsburg has laid out the theoretical grounds for carrying out prime-boost (two-phase) immunisation with two different vector systems in order to form a long and intense immune response that ensures protection against Ebola. He oversaw the creation of pilot industrial production of recombinant adenoviral vectors, which has no analogues in Russia.
Denis Logunov has developed unique systems to obtain various viral vectors, suggested conditions for their development and purification, and found optimal ratios of constructs based on two different vectors, the use of which created the basis for a stable immunological response.
Sergei Borisevich carried out research to develop methods to model Ebola and severe acute respiratory syndrome in rodents and primates, which made it possible to successfully count the quantitative level of immunogenic and protective properties of genetically engineered constructs that carry protective antigens of Ebola and SARS-CoV-2 viruses. Sergei Borisevich provided a set of preclinical trials of the specimens.
The2020 Russian Federation National Award in Science and Technology has been conferred upon Yevgeny CHOINZONOV, Igor RESHETOV and Sadulla ABAKAROV for creating a fundamental inter-discipline biomedical approach towards treatment, reconstruction and rehabilitation for head and neck tumours.
Yevgeny Choinzonov was born on December 14, 1952, in the village of Zhargalanta of the Buryat ASSR. Mr Choinzonov holds a DSc (Medicine) degree, and is a Professor and a Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences. He is the Director of the Scientific Research Institute of Oncology at the Tomsk National Medical Research Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
Igor Reshetov was born on May 29, 1964, in the town of Kupyansk-Uzlovoi of Kharkov Region. Mr Reshetov holds a DSc (Medicine) degree, and is a Professor and a Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences. He is the Director of the Levshin Institute of Cluster Oncology at the Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University of the Russian Ministry of Healthcare.
Sadulla Abakarov was born on December 2, 1953, in the city of Idzhevan of the Armenian SSR. Mr Abakarov holds a DSc (Medicine) degree, and is a Professor and an Honoured Doctor of the Russian Federation. He is the Dean of the Dentistry Department at the Russian Medical Academy of Continuous Professional Education of the Russian Ministry of Healthcare.
These specialists developed a highly effective technological chain for the treatment, reconstruction and rehabilitation of patients with malignant head and neck tumours and increased patients’ survival rates to 95 percent.
They developed and implemented a range of measures for the simultaneous removal of malignant tissue and the plastic reconstruction of patients’ heads and faces, as well as the implantation of highly sophisticated comprehensive auto-transplants and bio-artificial transplants based on new materials using the most advanced computer, adaptive (layer-by-layer) and cellular technologies, including the installation of composite jaw structures. They developed their own multi-stage system for the restoration of speech functions, as well as other systems for completely rehabilitating patients and socialising them.
Yevgeny Choinzonov developed methods for the reconstruction of complicated and penetrating jaw and face defects using multi-component flaps (implants), as well as computer modeling and additive (layer-by-layer) technologies. He created individual surgical templates for modeling tissue implants, with due consideration for patients’ anatomical peculiarities. Over 2,000 patients have been treated to date.
Igor Reshetov developed and introduced a single-stage reconstructive surgery technique for treating malignant tumours of head and neck organs using original custom-made composite organ and tissue auto-transplants, including fragments of mucous membranes, muscles, bones, nerves, vessels, etc. He has personally made over 1,000 transplants.
Sadulla Abakarov developed an entirely new scientific direction for treating oncological patients with jaw resections for the first time in Russian and foreign practice. This made it possible to completely restore functional and aesthetic features of jaw and dental systems and to ensure the professional and social rehabilitation of patients.